abdest nasıl alınır ingilizce

abdest nasıl alınır ingilizce

The partial ablution

Before offering the prayer one must be in good shape and pure condition. It is necessary to wash the parts of the body which are generally exposed to dirt or dust or smog.

  1. Declare the intention that the act is for the purpose of Worship and purity.
  2. Wash the hands up to the wrists three times.
  3. Rinse out the mouth with water three times preferably with a brush whenever it is possible.
  4. Cleanse the nostrils of the nose by sniffing water in to them three times.
  5. Wash the whole face three times with both hands if possible from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear.
  6. Wash the right arm three times up to the far end of the elbow and then do the same with the left arm.
  7. Wipe the whole head or any part of it with a wet hand once.
  8. Wipe the inner sides of the ears with the forefingers and their outer sides with the thumbs. This should be done with wet fingers.
  9. Wipe around the neck with wet hands.
  10. Wash the two feet up to the ankles three times beginning with the right foot.

At this stage the ablution is completed and the person who has performed it is ready to start his prayer. When the ablution is valid a person may keep it as long as he can and may use for as many prayers as he wishes.

Nullification of the Ablution

The ablution becomes nullified by any of the following.

  1. Natural discharges i.e., urine, stools, gas, etc.
  2. The flow of blood or pus and the like from any part of the body.
  3. Vomiting.
  4. Falling asleep.
  5. Losing one’s reason by taking drugs or any intoxicating stuff. After the occurrence of any of these things the ablution must be renewed for prayer. Also, after natural discharges, water should be applied because the use of toilet tissues may not be sufficient for the purpose of purity and worship.

Complete substitute for the Ablution (Tayammum)

Tayammum or resort to pure earth may substitute for the ablution and even the bath. This is allowed in any of the following cases.

  1. When a person is sick and cannot use water.
  2. When he has no access to water in sufficient quantity.
  3. When the use of water is likely to do him harm or cause any disease.
  4. When the performance of ablution makes the person miss a funeral or Eed prayer which has no substitute.

In any of these instances it is permissible to make Tayammum which is performed as follows.

  1. Strike both hands slightly on pure earth or sand or stone.
  2. Shake the hands off and wipe the face with them once in the same way as done in the ablution.
  3. Strike the hands again and wipe the right arm to the elbow with the left hand and the left arm with the right hand.

Special Facilities in Ablution

With regard to the ablution Islam has offered certain facilities. If socks or stocking are on and have been put on after performing an ablution, it is not necessary to take them off when renewing the ablution while traveling. Instead of taking them off, we wet hand and may be passed over them. They should be removed, however, and the feet washed at least once in every twenty four hours. The same practice may be restored to if the boots are on and their soles and appearance are clean. Similar a wound in any of the parts which must be washed in the ablution, and if washing that particular part is likely to cause harm, it is permissible to wipe the dressing bandage of the wound with a wet hand.

The complete Ablution (Ghusl / Bath)

The whole body with the nostrils, mouth and head must be washed by a complete bath before entering prayer in any of the following cases:

  1. After intimate intercourse;
  2. After wet dreams;
  3. Upon expiration of the menstruation period of woman;
  4. At the end of the confinement period of nursing woman, which, is estimated at a maximum of forty days. If it ends before, complete ablution should be done.

It should be pointed out that at the start of the bath or ablution the intention must be clear that it is for the purpose of purity and worship. Also, a person who is performing an ablution, partial or complete, should combine his performance with some utterances glorifying Allah and praying him for true guidance. The forms of such utterances and described in detail in the elaborate sources of the religion. One, however, can say one’s own best utterances if one does not know the exact wo sufficient as long as it is in the praise of Allah and is said with sincerity.

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ezanın ingilizcesi

ezanın ingilizcesi

Muslim prayer

Five times a day a Muslim is bound to perform the Salaah, the fixed ritual of the Islamic prayer – worship. He should properly go to the nearest mosque to offer his prayers together with the whole congregation. Each of the five periods is preceded by the adhaan (or azaan – ezan as it is more commonly called). The muezzin (mu’adh-dhin in Arabic) calls out on each occasion:

Allaabu Akbar (four times – “Allah is Most Great”).
Ash’hadu an laa ilaaha illallaah (twice – “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah“).
Ash’hadu anna Muhammadar-rasulullaah (twice – “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah“).
Haya ‘alas-salaah (twice – “Come to prayer”).
Ilaya ‘alal falaah (twice – “Come to the good;’).
Allaaku Akbar (twice – “Allah is Most Great”).
Laa ilaaha illallaah (once – “There is no god but Allah“). Click here to listenListen to Ezan (.wav format, 1Mb)

After the call to the good during the Fajr prayer (just before dawn), the crier calls out twice: “Prayer is better than sleep”. Then follows the actual performance of prayer itself in which anything between two or four rituals (each one known as a rak’ah – a “bowing”) are performed. The worshipper begins with the qiyam, the standing posture. He raises his hands to his ears and then folds them, right over left, upon his breast. Following this is the ruku in which he bows down and places his hands on his knees, thereafter returning to the standing position. Then comes the sajdah (secde), the prostration of the whole body on the ground. This is performed twice with a brief sitting in between. He then comes back to the sitting position, the qa’dah and passes the greeting as-salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah – “peace on you and the mercy of Allah“. It is known as the taslim and it is said that the worshipper is greeting his fellow Muslims (though some say he is greeting two angels who sit on his shoulders recording his good and bad deeds).

In between these postures various expressions and passages of the Qur’an (especially the Suratul- Fatihah) are recited. These include the takbir (“Allah is Most Great”), the tahmid from the Fatiha (“Praise be to Allah“), the tahlil ( There is no god but Allah“) and the tasbih (“May Allah be Glorified ). There are variations of these, for example subhaana rabbiyyal Adhiim – “Glorified be the Lord, the Most High . This fixed ritual of prayer is so rigid in Islam that there may be no departure from it and the pious Muslim will slavishly follow it day after day.

Prayer is also like a gymnastic exercise and a mechanical act, together with total submission to God of course. Before going into the mosque the worshipper must perform an ablution, washing his face, hands and feet (or, in certain circumstances, a washing of the whole body known as ghusl), the ritual of which is set out in the Qur’an:

“When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows) rub your heads (with water), and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body”. Surah 5.7. Later in the same verse it is said that the worshipper may use sand or earth, a ritual known as tayammum, where water is not available, in a desert for example.

In addition to the five daily prayers there are the tahajjud prayers, a late-night ritual practiced by Muhammad but not commanded by him, as well as tarawih prayers after the last prayer, salautal-isha, during the month of Ramadan. Furthermore on Fridays the great congregational prayer just after midday, the Juma prayer, replaces the midday prayer. In all of these the ritualistic performance of raka’at continues but, apart from these prescribed prayers, Muslims also have a more extemporaneous form of prayer, the dua. This takes the form either of set Arabic phrases or of personal devotions which may also be in Arabic or in the worshipper’s language.

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ramazanla ilgili ingilizce yazı yazılar

ramazanla ilgili ingilizce yazı yazılar

Ramadan

Fasting is also prescribed as an obligatory duty of Islam and the Muslim is obliged to fast from sunrise to sunset during the thirty days of the month of Ramadan, considered as the sultan of the twelve months. The command to fast is found in the Qur’an:

Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting. But if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later. Surah 2.185

The believer must declare his niyyah (niyet) before dawn each day and must abstain from all foods, liquids and other pleasures (like smoking, sex etc.) during the day. He should partake of a proper breakfast before the morning prayer. At sunset he should also break his fast as soon as he can. The fast-month ends with the sighting of the new moon heralding the month of Shawwal and the Eid festival (bayram).

Abd Allah b. Abbas reported that the Apostle of Allah, Muhammed (may peace be upon him), referring to Ramadan, declared: Do not begin to fast until you have seen the crescent and do not leave the fast until you see it, and if there are clouds, complete thirty days. (Muwatta Imam Malik, p.116).

Throughout the Muslim world this fast, although commanded only once in the Qur’an, is rigidly observed, even by those who are otherwise lax in religious observances. In conclusion it may be said that Salaah and the Ramadan fast have a greater effect on the Muslim‘s religious consciousness than all the other prescribed duties of Islam.

Fasting in Ramadan teaches people to get ready for the bad days (like wars, food or water shortage etc.) and makes them understand how the poor people feel when they have hunger.

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cami hakkında ingilizce yazı

cami hakkında ingilizce yazı

Some elements of the mosque

Minaret – Minare

Yivli Minaret in AntalyaTower near to, or built into, the structures of a mosque, which is used by the muezzin to call out, adhan (ezan), for people to come to prayers in Islam.

The earliest mosques were built without minarets, and the action of adhan could be performed in many other locations. The hadiths tell us that the Muslim community of Madina called out to prayers from the roof of the house of Muhammad, a house that doubled as a house for prayers.

After around 80 years of post-Muhammadan Islam, did the first minarets we know of, appear, in places as far between as Kairouan, Tunisia and Damascus, Syria. It is good reason to believe that the Great Mosque of Damascus, built in 705, was inspired by the churches of the city, yet the Muslim minaret served its own functions, continuing the old traditions from the house of Muhammad.

Minarets are now very much symbols of Islam, but not theologically heavy symbols. Minarets are often adorned, high, and striving to be as slim and elegant as possible. Modern minarets are often giving even more room for artistic achievements than in earlier times. The ground floor of minarets are always fitted into a square, with the minaret being everything from square to round – many are octagonal. The top ends in the house where the muezzin either is or where the loudspeakers are, covered with a pointed roof.

Mihrab

Mihrab of a mosqueNiche in a mosque, indicating the qibla (kible), the direction in which a Muslim shall perform his salat. The mihrab is the position of the person leading the congregation in prayer, and is by most considered the most holy place in the mosque, even if a mihrab is never dedicated to God, but frequently to religious personalities. A mosque will normally have only one mihrab.

The mihrab is by both Muslim and Western scholars considered as an element taken from churches, an element added to the mosque of architectural reasons. The mihrab was probably introduced in the 3rd century of Islam, in the 9th century AD.

Mihrabs can be of wood, but is normally made out of masonry, and adorned with pillars. Mihrabs come very often highly ornamented.

Minbar – Minber

Pulpit in a mosque, placed next to the mihrab. The minbar is used with the khutba (hutbe), the Friday sermon, and the khatib ascends it. But he stops on one of the lower steps, the top of the minbar is restricted to the Prophet, only. The minbar soon got an important function for communications, through being the place where official proclamations were made. A minbar is considered as a good place for baraka, blessings, and for giving oaths.

There seems to have been some Christian influence on the shape of the minbar, in the beginning of the history of the mosques. The minbar appears to be from the time of the Prophet, and its introduction is probably an expression of the Prophets position in the society, where the minbar worked as a throne. The minbar of the Prophet had no more than two steps, and a seat. It was the caliph Mu’awiyya who in 670 AD (50 H) raised the minbar of Muhammad with 6 steps, and this became the pattern for all minbars ever after, even if Mu’awiyya’s act was strongly opposed.

There was disagreement on whether a mosque should have a minbar when there were no ruler around to ascend it, but minbars were found in all province mosques already before 700 AD. And in some mosques, more than one minbar is found. Minbars soon came to be covered with a curtain, after pattern of Ka’ba.

Imam

A word used in several senses. In general use, it means the leader of congregational prayers; as such it implies no ordination or special spiritual powers beyond sufficient education to carry out this function. It is also used figuratively by many Sunni Muslims to mean the leader of the Islamic community. Among the Shia the word takes on many complex and controversial meanings; in general, however, and particularly when capitalized, it indicates that particular descendant of the House of Ali who is believed to have been God’s designated repository of the spiritual authority inherent in that line. The identity of this individual and the means of ascertaining his identity have been the major issues causing divisions among the Shia.

Muezzin

Caller in Islam, the man calling out for people to come to the mosque, to perform salat. In most mosques the muezzin calls, using the adhan (ezan) from the minaret, but many mosques have put loudspeakers up in the minarets.

The institution of muezzin belongs to the customs of Muhammad‘s own time, and the first muezzin was Bilal. But what way of calling for prayer, and from where, was debated in early Islam. Trumpets, flags, lamps, were all elements doing the same as the muezzin, and which could have replaced him, if the debates had ended differently. The first muezzins were using the roof of the mosque, or the adjacent streets, to call for peoples attention. The muezzin, the public crier, was more of an institution living on from older Arab culture, than an innovation to Islam.

The activities of the muezzin did eventually develop into rituals by themselves. The mere uttering of the calling, heard all over cities, was a ritual, even if most people never did much more than listen. This is reflected in melodious chanting of the adhan (ezan).

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istanbul camilerinin ingilizce tanıtımı

istanbul camilerinin ingilizce tanıtımı ,istanbul camilerinin ingilizce tanıtımı ,istanbul camilerini tanıtan ingilizce yazı yazılar

Major mosques of Istanbul

Sultanahmet (The Blue Mosque)

Blue MosqueThis 17th century mosque, near Haghia Sophia, is famous for the beautiful blue tile work ornamenting its walls. Its surrounding six slim minarets distinguish it from other mosques which normally have two or four minarets. It was built by architect Mehmet Aga by the order of Sultan Ahmed I as a complex in seven years and became the most important mosque of the city, right in Sultanahmet square.

Suleymaniye (the Magnificent)

The Mosque of Suleyman the Magnificent This outstanding piece of architecture was built in the 16th century by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan for Sultan Süleyman the Magnificient. Standing on a hilltop of the ancient city over the Golden Horn, it contributes gracefully to the city’s skyline. The tombs of the Sultan, his wife Hürrem and Mimar Sinan are found within its compounds. It is the largest mosque of Istanbul with four minarets.

Eyup

The first mosque built after the conquest of Istanbul, the great Mosque of Eyüp lies outside the city walls in Eyüp district, near the Golden Horn, at the supposed place where Eyüp (Eyyub el Ensari), the standard bearer of the Prophet Muhammed, died in the Islamic assault on Constantinople (Istanbul) in 670. Today it’s considered as the second place of pilgrimage for Muslims after Mecca.

Fatih (the Conqueror)

Built over the ruins of the Church of Apostles, Fatih Mosque was constructed between 1463 and 1470 and bears the name of the Ottoman conquerer of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet. The mosque is the site of his mausoleum. Its vast size and its great complex of religious buildings, including medreses (theological school), hospices, baths, a hospital and a library, make it well worth a visit.

Yeni Cami (New Mosque)

Yeni MosqueBeautiful 17th century mosque situated in Eminönü district near the Egyptian Spice Bazaar next to the Golden Horn. The doves flocking its compounds in large numbers provide a sight worth seeing. The interior of the mosque have great examples of Ottoman tile work.

Ortaköy mosque

Ortakoy Mosque on the BosphorusThe mosque is located on the shores of the Bosphorus in Ortaköy district. It was built in 1853 by the royal architect Nikogos Balyan, during the reign of Sultan Abdulmecid. The mosque is designed in Baroque style and has a fine location. It is composed of intimate rooms and a private area for the sultans. The wide and tall windows were designed to let in light from all around the Bosphorus. It has two minarets each with a single gallery that are be reached by a flight of stairs. The walls are made of white stone. The walls of the mosque‘s only dome were decorated with pink mosaics. Its recess in the wall of the kiblah was made of marble and decorated with mosaic, and the mihrab (pulpit) where the preacher stands was made with porphyry covered marble.

Beyazit complex

The complex, which is scattered throughout Beyazit Square, was built by Sultan Bayezid II and completed in the years 1500-1505. It was originally thought to have been designed by Mimar Sinan Hayreddin or Mimar Kemaleddin but later research suggests the architect may been Yakubsah Bin Sultan.

The complex is composed of a mosque, a kitchen, a primary school, a hospital, a medrese, a hamam, a soup kitchen for the poor and a caravanserai. It differs from the Fatih complex before it in that it was not built symmetrically but in a seemingly random style.

Beyazit Mosque is at the center of the complex. Its main dome is 16.78 meters in diameter and is supported by four pillars. An oddity is that one of the minarets is 79 meters from the other and is contiguous with the hospital. The stone and wood craftsmanship and stained glass are artistic  masterpieces. The courtyard paving materials and pillars used for the reservoir for ablutions were reclaimed from Byzantine ruins and re-used. These pillars in particular demonstrate the quality of Byzantine workmanship. The soup kitchen and Caravanserai are to the left of the mosque and are used today by the Beyazit State Library. The medresse far to the right of the mosque is used as a museum by the Turkish Foundation of Calligraphy. The hamam is some distance from the medresse on Ordu Street next to the Department of Literature. Tombs are found on the Kiblah [Mecca] side of the mosque. Sultan Bayezid II, his daughter Selçuk Hatun and the architect of Tanzimat Fermani, Mustafa Resit Pasa, are buried here.

Dolmabahce mosque

Dolmabahce Mosque on the BosphorusThe Dolmabahçe Mosque is located on the Bosphorus in the southern part of Dolmabahce Palace. Construction of the mosque began at the behest of Sultan Abdülmecid’s mother, Bezmialem Valide Sultan, but when she died, Sultan Abdülmecid took over. It was completed in 1855, and the architect was Karabet Balyan. It is one of the highly decorated Baroque-style mosques. Being part of the palace complex, the mosque contains a front section in which the sovereign and state officials could worship and a two-storey section for the sovereign suitable for the public procession of the Sultan to the mosque on Fridays. The circular arrangement of the windows, which resembles a peacock’s tail, is an unusual sight relatively unknown among the architects of mosques.

The two minarets both have a gallery. The inner door is decorated in a mixture of the Baroque and Empire styles. A valuable chandelier hangs from the alcove. The niche (mihrap) and pulpit (minber) of the mosque are made of porphyry marble.

Zeyrek mosque

Zeyrek MosqueDuring the 12th century, the Byzantine Empress Irene and Emperor John II Kommenos commissioned the Pantocrator, a three-church monastic complex, to serve as the dynastic mausoleum for themselves and later Byzantine emperors. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Palaeiologan emperors were also buried in the multi-domed structure in the heart of what is now the old city of Istanbul.

After the Ottoman conquest in 1453, the buildings were converted to a Medresse (Koranic school) and subsequently to a mosque. One part of the Zeyrek Camii is still used for Muslim worship. But the building is situated in a poor neighborhood of immigrants who have little historical and cultural attachment to it. The impressive structure has been allowed to deteriorate in the past. Because the structure remains relatively stable, the most immediate actions required are to secure it from further damage from the weather. Restoration work is on its way but funding is still needed to complete re-roofing, replace all the windows, repair damaged walls, and consolidate interior surfaces.

Zeyrek Mosque is selected as 100 most endangered sites of the world by World Monuments Fund.

Other mosques

Other interesting mosques in the city are: Nuruosmaniye, Mihrimah, Arap, Atik Ali Pasa, Beylerbeyi, Hirka-i Serif, Kalenderhane, Kilic Ali Pasa, Laleli, Mahmud Pasa, Mihrimah Sultan, Nusretiye, Rüstem Pasa,  Sokullu Pasa, Sultan Selim, Sehzade, Valide etc. For more information please contact to Mr. Burak Sansal.

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