televizyonun (TV nin ) icadı ingilizce

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Television was not invented by a single inventor, instead many people working together and alone over the years, contributed to the evolution of television.


1831

Joseph Henry’s and Michael Faraday’s work with electromagnetism jumpstarts the era of electronic communication.

1862 First Still Image Transferred

Abbe Giovanna Caselli invents his Pantelegraph and becomes the first person to transmit a still image over wires.

1873

Scientists May and Smith experiment with selenium and light, this reveals the possibilty for inventors to transform images into electronic signals.

1876

Boston civil servant George Carey was thinking about complete television systems and in 1877 he put forward drawings for what he called a selenium camera that would allow people to see by electricity.

Eugen Goldstein coins the term “cathode rays” to describe the light emitted when an electric current was forced through a vacuum tube.

Late 1870s

Scientists and engineers like Paiva, Figuier, and Senlecq were suggesting alternative designs for Telectroscopes.

1880

Inventors Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison theorize about telephone devices that transmit image as well as sound.

Bell’s Photophone used light to transmit sound and he wanted to advance his device for image sending.

George Carey builds a rudimentary system with light-sensitive cells.

1881

Sheldon Bidwell experiments with his Telephotography that was similiar to Bell’s Photophone.

1884 18 Lines of Resolution

Paul Nipkow sends images over wires using a rotating metal disk technology calling it the electric telescope with 18 lines of resolution.

1900 And We Called It Television

At the World’s Fair in Paris, the first International Congress of Electricity was held. That is where Russian Constantin Perskyi made the first known use of the word “television.”

Soon after 1900, the momentum shifted from ideas and discussions to physical development of television systems. Two major paths in the development of a television system were pursued by inventors.

  • Inventors attempted to build mechanical television systems based on Paul Nipkow’s rotating disks or
  • Inventors attempted to build electronic television systems based on the cathode ray tube developed independently in 1907 by English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton and Russian scientist Boris Rosing.
  • American Charles Jenkins and Scotsman John Baird followed the mechanical model while
  • Philo Farnsworth, working independently in San Francisco, and Russian emigrant Vladimir Zworkin, working for Westinghouse and later RCA, advanced the electronic model.
  • Electronic television systems eventual replaced mechanical systems.

1906 – First Mechanical Television System

Lee de Forest invents the Audion vacuum tube that proved essential to electronics. The Audion was the first tube with the ability to amplify signals.

Boris Rosing combines Nipkow’s disk and a cathode ray tube and builds the first working mechanical TV system.

1907 Early Electronic Systems

Campbell Swinton and Boris Rosing suggest using cathode ray tubes to transmit images. Independent of each other, they both develop electronic scanning methods of reproducing images.

1923

Vladimir Zworkin patents his iconscope a TV camera tube based on Campbell Swinton’s ideas. The iconscope, which he called an electric eye becomes the cornerstone for further television development. Zworkin later develops the kinescope for picture display (aka the reciever).

1924/25 First Moving Silhouette Images

American Charles Jenkins and John Baird from Scotland, each demonstrate the mechanical transmissions of images over wire circuits.

John Baird becomes the first person to transmit moving silhouette images using a mechanical system based on Nipkow’s disk.

Charles Jenkin built his Radiovisor and 1931 and sold it as a kit for consumers to put together (see photo to right).

Vladimir Zworkin patents a color television system.

1926 30 Lines of Resolution

John Baird operates a television system with 30 lines of resolution system running at 5 frames per second.

1927

Bell Telephone and the U.S. Department of Commerce conduct the first long distance use of television that took place between Washington D.C. and New York City on April 9th. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover commented, “Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world’s history. Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in a new respect, and in a manner hitherto unknown.” Philo Farnsworth, files for a patent on the first complete electronic television system, which he called the Image Dissector.

1928

The Federal Radio Commission issues the first television station license (W3XK) to Charles Jenkins.

1929

Vladimir Zworkin demonstrates the first practical electronic system for both the transmission and reception of images using his new kinescope tube.

John Baird opens the first TV studio, however, the image quality was poor.

1930

Charles Jenkins broadcasts the first TV commercial.

The BBC begins regular TV transmissions.

1933

Iowa State University (W9XK) starts broadcasting twice weekly television programs in cooperation with radio station WSUI.

1936

About 200 hundred television sets are in use world-wide.

The introduction of coaxial cable, which is a pure copper or copper-coated wire surrounded by insulation and an aluminum covering. These cables were and are used to transmit television, telephone, and data signals.

The first experimental coaxial cable lines were laid by AT&T between New York and Philadelphia in 1936. The first regular installation connected Minneapolis and Stevens Point, WI in 1941.

The original L1 coaxial-cable system could carry 480 telephone conversations or one television program. By the 1970’s, L5 systems could carry 132,000 calls or more than 200 television programs.

1937

CBS begins its TV development.

The BBC begins high definition broadcasts in London.

Brothers and Stanford researchers Russell and Sigurd Varian introduce the Klystron. A Klystron is a high-frequency amplifier for generating microwaves. It is considered the technology that makes UHF-TV possible because it gives the ability to generate the high power required in this spectrum.

1939

Vladimir Zworkin and RCA conduct experimentally broadcasts from the Empire State Building.

Television was demonstrated at the New York World’s Fair and the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition.

RCA’s David Sarnoff used his company’s exhibit at the 1939 World’s Fair as a showcase for the 1st Presidential speech (Roosevelt) on television and to introduce RCA’s new line of television receivers, some of which had to be coupled with a radio if you wanted to hear sound.

The Dumont company starts making tv sets.

1940

Peter Goldmark invents a 343 lines of resolution color television system.

1941

The FCC releases the NTSC standard for black and white TV.

1943

Vladimir Zworkin developed a better camera tube called the Orthicon. The Orthicon (see photo right) had enough light sensitivity to record outdoor events at night.

1946

Peter Goldmark, working for CBS, demonstrated his color television system to the FCC. His system produced color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a cathode ray tube.

This mechanical means of producing a color picture was used in 1949 to broadcast medical procedures from Pennsylvania and Atlantic City hospitals. In Atlantic City, viewers could come to the convention center to see broadcasts of operations. Reports from the time noted that the realism of seeing surgery in color caused more than a few viewers to faint.

Although Goldmark’s mechanical system was eventually replaced by an electronic system he is recognized as the first to introduce a broadcasting color television system.

1948

Cable television is introduced in Pennsylvania as a means of bringing television to rural areas.

A patent was granted to Louis W. Parker for a low-cost television receiver.

One million homes in the United States have television sets.

1950

The FCC approves the first color television standard which is replaced by a second in 1953.

Vladimir Zworkin developed a better camera tube called the Vidicon.

1956

Ampex introduces the first practical videotape system of broadcast quality.

1956

Robert Adler invents the first practical remote control called the Zenith Space Commander. It was proceeded by wired remotes and units that failed in sunlight.

1960

The first split screen broadcast occurs on the Kennedy – Nixon debates.

1962

The All Channel Receiver Act requires that UHF tuners (channels 14 to 83) be included in all sets.

1962

AT&T launches Telstar, the first satellite to carry TV broadcasts – broadcasts are now internationally relayed.

1967

Most TV broadcasts are in color.

1969

July 20, first TV transmission from the moon and 600 million people watch.

1972

Half the TVs in homes are color sets.

1973

Giant screen projection TV is first marketed.

1976

Sony introduces betamax, the first home video cassette recorder.

1978

PBS becomes the first station to switch to all satellite delivery of programs.

1981 1,125 Lines of Resolution

NHK demonstrates HDTV with 1,125 lines of resolution.

1982

Dolby surround sound for home sets is introduced.

1983

Direct Broadcast Satellite begins service in Indianapolis, In.

1984

Stereo TV broadcasts approved.

1986

Super VHS introduced.

1993

Closed captioning required on all sets.

1996

The FCC approves ATSC’s HDTV standard. A billion TV sets world-wide.

—————————————————————————————————

Television was not invented by a single inventor, instead many people working together and alone over the years, contributed to the evolution of television.

Broadcasting Pioneers: The Many Innovators Behind Television History

At the dawn of television history there were two distinct paths of technology experimented with by researchers.

Early inventors attempted to either build a mechanical television system based on the technology of Paul Nipkow’s rotating disks; or they attempted to build an electronic television system using a cathode ray tube developed independently in 1907 by English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton and Russian scientist Boris Rosing.

Electronic television systems worked better and eventual replaced mechanical systems.

Paul Gottlieb Nipkow – Mechanical Television History

German, Paul Nipkow developed a rotating-disc technology to transmit pictures over wire in 1884 called the Nipkow disk. Paul Nipkow was the first person to discover television’s scanning principle, in which the light intensities of small portions of an image are successively analyzed and transmitted.

John Logie Baird – Mechanical

In the 1920’s, John Logie Baird patented the idea of using arrays of transparent rods to transmit images for television. Baird’s 30 line images were the first demonstrations of television by reflected light rather than back-lit silhouettes. John Logie Baird based his technology on Paul Nipkow’s scanning disc idea and later developments in electronics.

Charles Francis Jenkins – Mechanical

Charles Jenkins invented a mechanical television system called radiovision and claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving silhouette images on June 14, 1923.

Cathode Ray Tube – Electronic Television History

Electronic television is based on the development of the cathode ray tube, which is the picture tube found in modern TV sets. German scientist, Karl Braun invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope (CRT) in 1897.

Vladimir Kosma Zworykin – Electronic

Russian inventor, Vladimir Zworykin invented an improved cathode-ray tube called the kinescope in 1929. The kinescope tube was sorely needed for television. Zworykin was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes.

Philo T. Farnsworth – Electronic

In 1927, Philo Farnsworth was the first inventor to transmit a television image comprised of 60 horizontal lines. The image transmitted was a dollar sign. Farnsworth developed the dissector tube, the basis of all current electronic televisions. He filed for his first television patent in 1927 (#1,773,980).

Louis Parker – Television Receiver

Louis Parker invented the modern changeable television receiver. The patent was issued to Louis Parker in 1948.

Rabbit Ears – Antennae

Marvin Middlemark invented “rabbit ears”, the “V” shaped TV antennae. Among Middlemark’s other inventions were a water-powered potato peeler and rejuvenating tennis ball machine.

Color Television

Color TV was by no means a new idea, a German patent in 1904 contained the earliest proposal, while in 1925 Zworykin filed a patent disclosure for an all-electronic color television system. A successful color television system began commercial broadcasting, first authorized by the FCC on December 17, 1953 based on a system invented by RCA.

History of Cable TV

Cable television, formerly known as Community Antenna Television or CATV, was born in the mountains of Pennsylvania in the late 1940’s. The first successful color television system began commercial broadcasting on December 17, 1953 based on a system designed by RCA.

Remote Controls

It was in June of 1956, that the TV remote controller first entered the American home. The first TV remote control called “Lazy Bones,” was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation (then known as Zenith Radio Corporation).

Origins of Children’s Programming

The American Broadcasting Company first aired Saturday morning TV shows for children on August 19, 1950.

Plasma TV

The very first prototype for a plasma display monitor was invented in 1964 by Donald Bitzer, Gene Slottow, and Robert Willson.

History of Closed Captioning TV

TV closed captions are captions that are hidden in the television video signal, invisible without a special decoder.

Web TV

Web TV was rolled out in 1996.

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